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Sunday, September 05, 2004


- Microbe Can Survive at 266 Degrees Microbe Can Survive at 266 Degrees
Thu Aug 14, 2:01 PM ETAdd Science - AP to My Yahoo!
By PAUL RECER, AP Science Writer WASHINGTON - Some may like it hot, but nothing likes it hotter than a weird microbe known as Strain 121. The one-celled organism, captured from a magma vent at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean, can survive 266 degrees, a temperature no other known life form can tolerate.

The as-yet-unnamed microbe was able to reproduce and grow vigorously at about 250 degrees, the typical temperature used in autoclaves to sterilize medical instruments, said Derek R. Lovley, a University of Massachusetts microbiologist who was the senior author of a study appearing Friday in the journal Science. "It has been the dogma in microbiology for 120 years that that temperature would kill any living organism," Lovley said. But not Strain 121. In laboratory experiments, Lovley and his co-author, Kazem Kashefi, subjected Strain 121 to higher and higher temperatures and it survived each test. "We just kept increasing the temperature and it kept living," he said. "Finally, we put it into the autoclave which was supposed to kill everything, but when we pulled it out it was still alive and, in fact, had grown. It amazed us." Previously, the most heat tolerant organism known was Pyrolobus fumarii, a microbe recovered in 1997 from a thermal pool in Italy. Lovley said Pyrolobus fumarii stops growing at a temperature of 235 degrees and is killed after one hour in an autoclave at 250 degrees.
Strain 121, however, seems to enjoy the torrid temperatures inside an autoclave. In 24 hours at 250 degrees, the microbe not only lived, but doubled in number. When the temperature was raised to 266 degrees, Strain 121 stopped growing, but it did survive. When the superheated specimen was cooled down to a mere 217 degrees, still above the boiling of water, the microbe was alive and able to grow. "It will survive that high temperature (266 degrees) but it will not multiply, at least that we could detect," Lovley said. Both Strain 121 and Pyrolobus fumarii are members of the unusual life domain known as Archaea. Living organisms are divided in three domains, based on their genetic makeup and cell structure. People, plants and animals are in the Eukaryotic domain, and most germs are in the Eubacteria domain. The third domain, Archaea, are microorganisms that generally live in extreme conditions of heat, cold, pressures or acidity and have a DNA structure unlike the other two. Strain 121 was found in samples taken from the stream of water and chemicals spewing from a natural chimney, or smoking vent, in the Juan de Fuca Ridge off the northwest coast of the United States. These chimneys, in about 1 1/2 miles of water, are built up on the ocean floor by superheated water ejected through vents from magma chambers below. They spew water heated to more than 300 degrees, along with dissolved minerals such as sulfur and iron. Lovley said Strain 121 uses iron oxide in the vent streams to metabolize organic molecules. In effect, he said the microbe uses iron in the same way that surface-dwelling organisms use oxygen. The very earliest forms of life on Earth, he said, could have been like Strain 121, tolerating high temperatures and using iron for metabolism. Lovley said early in the Earth's history, the planet was iron-rich and oxygen poor, so it is logical that early forms of life could have lived as Strain 121 does now at the bottom of the ocean. Finding a microbe that can withstand such high temperatures and pressures also increases the hope that there may be life on other planets in the solar system or elsewhere in the universe, Lovley said. "Raising the temperature of life increases that window where you could expect to find some other life form," he said. Jan Amend, a Washington University in St. Louis microbial geochemist who is not part of Lovley's team, said the discovery is important because it strengthens the case that early Earth life was sustained using ferric iron instead of oxygen. He said it also improves the prospects of finding life beyond the Earth. "Any time you have organisms that live at higher temperatures or at higher pressures, that expands the limits of possibility that there might be life elsewhere in our solar system or beyond," said Amend.
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Infectious Bacteria in Milk Survives Pasteurization

Scientists presented a disturbing finding regarding the milk we drink --
it is contaminated with anorganism that may cause Crohn's disease.
These findings were confirmed through the testing of 702 samples from California, Minnesota andWisconsin, three of the biggest milk-producing states. It was discovered that at least 2.8 percentof the samples tested carried a dangerous organism called mycobacterium avium Paratuberculosis (MAP) that was both active and had the ability of multiplying.
It has been known that MAP causes Johne's disease among the cattle and sheep population. The continual rise of Johne's has become a concern among the dairy producers because of the way it wreaks havoc upon the bodies of the animals. MAP damages the animal's systems by triggering chronic inflammation of their intestines then spreading rampant throughout their bodies leaving them with a deteriorating disease and no practical cure.

Facts on Crohn's Disease

Chronic inflammatory is defined as a disease of the intestine that initiates a wasting reaction in people's bodies Crohn's disease afflicts over half a million Americans Approximately 20,000 Americans, particularly young people, are diagnosed with Crohn's disease each year Experts have noted a clear relationship between MAP and Crohn's disease. This could be seen from the tests that revealed nearly all of the people affected by Crohn's disease had also been affected with the MAP infection.
Despite the milk industry's awareness of this dangerous connection, they have decided to create clever marketing campaigns targeting children instead of investing time into finding out how to rectify the problem. The milk industry and the FDA argued that the milk was safe because it went through a pasteurization process, which they claimed killed off any dangerous bacterias such as the MAP infection.
Members of a research association that supports Crohn's patients have continued to push for removal of MAP from all dairy products and are waiting to see what the FDA will do next to address the problem.
Dr. Mercola's Comment:
So not only does pasteurization kill the beneficial bacteria available in the milk, but it leaves a potentially harmful organism alive and well. The evidence for drinking healthful raw milk is well documented, and I suspect it is only a matter of time before the many reasons not to drink pasteurized milk become public.
The solution to this contaminated milk dilemma -- drink raw milk.
Raw milk is actually one of the more profound healing agents in inflammatory bowel disease. Rather than causing it, raw milk causes the disease to go into remission.
Dangerous Grains are one of the main contributors to the development of Crohn's disease. There is fairly strong Paleolithic evidence that 10,000 years ago most humans did not consume many grains. They were hunter-gatherers who subsisted mostly on vegetables and meats. Ten thousand years is a mere blip in a biological sense for humans -- over 99 percent of our genetic make-up was in place, in fact, before we ever started consuming grains.
When considered from this perspective alone, it is not too surprising that grains can cause a wide array of health issues. Contemporary humans have not suddenly evolved mechanisms to incorporate the high carbohydrates from starch- and sugar-rich foods into their diets. You can find out more about the dangers of grains in my new book.
For those with Crohn's disease or IBS, coconut oil would be an extremely beneficial addition to your diet.
The anti-inflammatory and healing effects of coconut oil have been shown to play a role in soothing inflammation and healing injury in the digestive tract. Coconut oil also has antimicrobial properties that promote intestinal health by killing troublesome microorganisms that may cause chronic inflammation.
Related Articles:
Don't Drink Your Milk!
Pasteurized Milk and its Link to Autism, Part I
Autism and Malnutrition: The Milk Connection
More Reasons Why You Don’t Want to Drink Pasteurized Milk
Soy Milk Is Safe! That Is What the Formula Industry Says
The Mystery in Your Milk
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Disclaimer: The entire contents of this website are based upon the opinions of Dr. Mercola, unless otherwise noted. Individual articles are based upon the opinions of the respective author, who retains copyright as marked. The information on this website is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice. It is intended as a sharing of knowledge and information from the research and experience of Dr. Mercola and his community. Dr. Mercola encourages you to make your own health care decisions based upon your research and in partnership with a qualified health care professional.


Anonymous said...

Hi Bro:

Just passing through on my way to the Pct 15th deadline.

Best to you and the family.


The Talker said...

Thanks Bob;
Nice to hear from you, Even this way.
All is resonably well.
Best of Health to you and Your family.